Who is your favourite leader?

Indonesia has six presidents since its independence was declared in 1945. Here are their brief profiles.

1. Soekarno (in office 18 August 1945 – 19 December 1948; 13 July 1949 – 27 December 1949; 15 August 1950 – 22 February 1967)


Soekarno studied architecture, civil engineering and was one of the first graduate in ITB (Bandung Institute of Technology). He proclaimed independence of Indonesia on 17 August 1945 and made concept of Pancasila (five principles of the nation). He was a truly nationalist having a slogan “stand on own feet”. He opposed imperialism, capitalism and said to developed countries “Go to hell with your aid !”. Soekarno also supported Asian and African countries to reach independence by organizing Bandung Conference in 1955. His political philosophy was mainly a fuse of elements of Marxism, nationalism and Islam. A rebellion and army force led him out of office. True stories behind removal of his power remain unclear and secret.

‎2. Muhammad Soeharto (22 February 1967 – 21 May 1998)
In the years following Indonesian independence, Soeharto served in the Indonesian National Army. After Soekarno’s presidency, he constructed a strong, centralised and military-dominated government. His policies were so different from those of his predecessor. He opened Indonesia’s economy by divesting state owned companies, receiving foreign invesment and aid. For most of his administration, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialization. Corruption and the Asian Financial Crisis had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, and Soeharto’s regime. Nation-wide demonstration forced his resignation from the presidency.‎
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3. Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (21 May 1998 – 20 October 1999)

After studying aerospace engineering in RWTH Aachen and working in Germany, in 1974 he established a national aviation industry. Habibie succeeded in flying a N-250 commuter plane in 1995. He was a vice president and replaced Soeharto’s position in 1998. His Government stabilized the economy after the chaos which went through in the Asian Financial Crisis. Habibie surprised everyone by announcing a referendum in East Timor, choosing between special autonomy and independence. His accountability speech was finally rejected. Now he spends most of his time as a researcher in the same country as he got doctoral degree.
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4. Abdurrahman Wahid (20 October 1999 – 23 July 2001)

Wahid completed his education at the University of Baghdad in 1970. He was well-known as a figure in Nahdlatul Ulama, a largest Indonesian independent Islamic organization. He was elected as a president in 1999 after winning a vote in representative council. He made the announcement that Chinese New Year was to become an optional holiday and lifted the ban on the display of Chinese characters and the importations of Chinese publication. In March 2001 he tried to counter the opposition by moving against dissidents within his own Cabinet. The People’s Consultative Assembly unanimously voted to impeach Wahid and to replace him with Megawati as President in July 2001.
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5. Megawati Soekarnoputri (23 July 2001 – 20 October 2004)

Megawati is a daughter of Soekarno and began her political career as a People’s Representative Council member. She became the first Indonesian woman President when Wahid was removed from office in 2001. She ran for re-election in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in the second round. She leads an opposition party against the current government.
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6. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (20 October 2004-present)

Yudhoyono graduated from Military Academy in 1973 as the best graduate of the year. He also studied in the United States, where he received his Masters degree in Management from Webster University in 1991 and earned his PhD in agricultural economics from the Bogor Agricultural Institute. After his military career, he was appointed as a minister. In 2001, he founded his own party which nominated him as a president candidate. He was the first directly elected president of Indonesia in 2004. He ran for re-election in 2009 with Boediono as his running mate, and won with an outright majority of the votes in the first round of balloting.
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Beside these people, Indonesia ever had two leaders who are not formally recognized as president because of political reasons.
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Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (19 December 1948 – 13 July 1949)
On 18 December 1948, Dutch army did military aggression and captured the capital Yogyakarta. President Soekarno and Vice President Hatta were seized and exiled to Bangka island.  Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, the Minister of Welfare went to Bukittinggi, West Sumatra in preparation for emergency plan to create a “government in exile”. Based on the emergency plan, after the Dutch invasion, on 22 December 1948, Mr. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara established the ‘Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia’ (Indonesian: PDRI) in Bukittinggi, Sumatra. Sjafruddin served as chairman of the emergency cabinet. After peace had been brokered in 1949, he was appointed as Finance Minister and later as first Indonesian Governor of De Javasche Bank (former name of  Bank Indonesia). He in 1957 came into conflict with the President over his opposition to nationalization of Dutch economic interests, and his opposition to Guided Democracy system (1957–1965) and became more involved with Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: PRRI).
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Assaat (27 December 1949 – 15 August 1950)
The Republic of the United States of Indonesia (Indonesian: RIS), was a federal state to which the Netherlands formally transferred sovereignty of Indonesia on 27 December 1949 following the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference. The RIS comprised sixteen state entities: the ‘Republic of Indonesia’, consisting of territories in Java and Sumatra and the fifteen states established by the Dutch. Assaat acted as President of Republic of Indonesia during RIS governance.
The United States of Indonesia was officially dissolved and replaced by the Republic of Indonesia, a unitary state, by President Soekarno on 17 August 1950. In last 1950s, Assaat began to openly criticise Soekarno’s Guided Democracy system and moved to Sumatra joined with PRRI.
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Source: Wikipedia
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